By Chr. P. Raven and G. Kerkut (Auth.)
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Isolated animal halves of a germ will produce a larva with a large apical tuft, but without gut and skeleton; isolated vegetative halves will grow into a larva with a large gut, and an irregular skeleton, but without either apical tuft or band of cilia (Fig. 15). Evidently, the potency 50 POLARITY AND SYMMETRY; for the formation of a gut decreases from the vegetative to wards the animal pole, whereas that for the formation of an apical tuft decreases in the opposite direction. When cell groups from different parts of the germ are brought together, more or less normal larvae will result even from highly abnormal combinations of blastomeres, so long as cells with animal and cells with vegetative potencies are present in balanced proportions.
Such a disturb ance can be caused by centrifuging the egg. Under the in fluence of the centrifugal force, the materials of the egg are arranged according to their specific gravity. The lighter substances (especially the fats) are accumulated at the centri petal pole, the heavier material moves toward the centrifugal pole. In this way the contents of the egg are arranged in layers, an arrangement very different from the normal structure of the egg cytoplasm (Plate IV). g. in polychaete worms and in molluscs.
1 0 ) ; after fertilisation, the zygote nucleus often lies in an eccentric position, nearer to the animal pole. The first two cleavages nearly always take place in meridional planes so that they intersect in the main axis of the egg. Further the polarity is often apparent in the arrangement of the inclusions of the egg cytoplasm. In many eggs, the food substances which together constitute the yolk are not evenly 43 44 POLARITY AND SYMMETRY: distributed; often their density increases from the animal tov^ard the vegetative pole.