An Essay on Liberation by Herbert Marcuse

By Herbert Marcuse

During this concise and startling e-book, the writer of One-Dimensional Man argues that the time for utopian hypothesis has come. Marcuse argues that the conventional conceptions of human freedom were rendered out of date through the improvement of complicated commercial society. Social concept can now not content material itself with repeating the formulation, “from each one in accordance with his skill, to every in accordance with his needs,” yet needs to now examine the character of human wishes themselves. Marcuse's declare is that whether creation have been managed and made up our minds through the staff, society may nonetheless be repressive—unless the employees themselves had the desires and aspirations of loose males. starting from philosophical anthropology to aesthetics An Essay on Liberation makes an attempt to outline—in a hugely speculative and tentative fashion—the new chances for human liberation.

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13 The country wanted healthy mothers producing healthy infants to populate New Zealand and the Empire. Maternal welfare was therefore an imperative. At the time the St Helens hospitals were established, most maternal deaths were due to puerperal sepsis. Its prevention formed a strong focus in the new midwifery education. The danger of dirt issuing from, or introduced into, the woman’s vagina was therefore emphasised in lectures, textbooks, journal articles and examinations. The state midwifery examination in 1920, for example, questioned midwifery candidates on the causes and symptoms of puerperal septicaemia and the precautions they would take to prevent its occurrence.

The churching of women had been in existence for hundreds of years before falling relatively rapidly into decline in the nineteenth century. There is a need to determine what insights such historical practices can provide for twenty-first-century perspectives on women’s bodies, maternal roles and birth rituals. Focusing on elements of the practice of the thanksgiving of women after childbirth provides an excellent tool for this purpose. The aim of the chapter is, first, to outline a short history of churching; second, to provide a thick description of the biblical narrative as found in the Old Testament Book of Leviticus chapter 12:1–8; and third, to discuss the possible relevance of the chapter content for contemporary birth rituals.

Kristeva, J. (1982) Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection. New York: Columbia University Press. Mein Smith, P. (1986) Maternity in Dispute, 1920–1939. Wellington: Historical Publications Branch, Department of Internal Affairs. ‘Midwifery’ (1911) Kai Tiaki. January 1911:13. ‘Midwifery Examination’ (1917) Kai Tiaki. January 1917:51. ‘St Helens Hospital, Wellington’ (1912) Kai Tiaki. July 1912:79–81. ‘St Helens Hospital, Wellington’ (1915) Kai Tiaki. January 1915:36. ‘State examination of midwives’ (1913) Kai Tiaki.

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