By William G. Rothstein
During this commonly researched background of scientific faculties, William Rothstein, a number one historian of yank medication, strains the formation of the scientific tuition from its foundation as a resource of clinical lectures to its present prestige as a middle of undergraduate and graduate scientific schooling, biomedical learn, and really good sufferer care. utilizing numerous historic and sociological innovations, Rothstein competently describes tools of scientific schooling from one iteration of medical professionals to the subsequent, illustrating the altering occupation paths in medication. whilst, this research considers clinical faculties in the context of the nation of scientific perform, associations of remedy, and normal greater schooling. the main entire and thorough basic heritage of scientific schooling within the usa ever written, this paintings focuses either at the ancient improvement of clinical colleges and their present prestige.
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Extra resources for American Medical Schools and the Practice of Medicine: A History
41 A larger group of American physicians were trained as apprentices to other physicians. One study of almost 1,600 Massachusetts physicians from 1630 to 1800 found that about one-third had at least one year's apprenticeship training, compared to a few that were European trained and the majority who had no formal training of at least a year's duration. 42 The great majority of physicians had no formal training and probably entered medicine from other occupations. They may have sold drugs, "cured" or nursed some sick individual back to health and thus established a reputation as a healer, or performed simple surgical procedures like extracting teeth or lancing boils.
Physiology was taught partly in the course on the theory and practice of medicine and partly in anatomy. It covered the "vital" properties of the body, like motion and irritability, and the functions of the human organs, including respiration, locomotion, excretion, and circulation of the blood. 69 Materia medica straddled the medical sciences and clinical medicine. Because botanical and mineral drugs were dispensed in their crude states (usually ground into powders or put in solution with water or alcohol), much of the course involved describing, identifying, and preparing the ingredients.
The insane failed to recover as rapidly or in as large numbers as expected and occupied an increasing proportion of hospital beds. 29 The treatment of the sick also turned out to be less successful than anticipated. The three hospitals were soon burdened with many long-term patients who needed only nursing care and adequate shelter. This caused numerous problems. Many patients left the hospital during the day, sometimes to earn money, sometimes for other reasons. Both the New York and Pennsylvania Hospitals prohibited their patients from begging in their respective cities, and the Pennsylvania Hospital forbade its patients from gambling in the hospital and getting drunk.