By Marc Duldig (ed.)

Advances in Geosciences is the results of a concerted attempt in bringing the newest effects and making plans actions concerning earth and house technological know-how in Asia and the overseas enviornment. the quantity editors are all best scientists of their study fields overlaying six sections: Hydrological technological know-how (HS), Planetary technological know-how (PS), sun Terrestrial (ST), strong Earth (SE), Ocean technology (OS) and Atmospheric technological know-how (AS). the most goal is to spotlight the medical matters necessary to the examine of earthquakes, tsunamis, atmospheric dirt storms, weather switch, drought, flood, typhoons, monsoons, house climate, and planetary exploration.This quantity is abstracted in NASA's Astrophysics facts approach.

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Gonzalez of the HILDCAA event do not correspond to substorms, at least by the Akasofu16 deﬁnition. Somewhat puzzling was the previously mentioned lack of correspondence between the start of substorms indicated by imaging and that by the geomagnetic indices, AE and AL. For many years now researchers have simply “assumed” that the start of AE increases or AL decreases were an indication of the substorm onset. This same issue may be pertinent to the identiﬁcation of HILDCAAs (discussed here) as well.

2. Are there magnetic storms without substorms? 2 challenge, some researchers have attempted to search for magnetic storms that did not have substorms or had a paucity of substorms. 35 These features had previously been used as a method to identify magnetic clouds/driver gases. The IMF southward or northward turnings discussed earlier are interplanetary discontinuities. Thus if there were any magnetic storms that might have a lack/paucity of substorms, it might be magnetic cloud-induced magnetic storms.

D. 2. What is a substorm? There are many diﬀerent deﬁnitions of a substorm that exist in the literature. Of these, many focus on either ground magnetic or magnetospheric measurements. We think that these deﬁnitions can be misleading and also at times could/would be contradictory to each other. 16 This is based on visual auroral imagery and auroral morphology. Figure 1 is a schematic from his seminal work. Basically, a substorm Fig. 1. The temporal evolution of auroral forms during a substorm. Source: Ref.