Advances in Chinese Spoken Language Processing by Chin-hue Lee, Haizhou Li, Lin-shan Lee, Ren-hua Wang, Qiang

By Chin-hue Lee, Haizhou Li, Lin-shan Lee, Ren-hua Wang, Qiang Huo

After many years of analysis job, chinese language spoken language processing (CSLP) has complicated significantly either in functional expertise and theoretical discovery. during this ebook, the editors supply either an creation to the sphere in addition to detailed examine issues of their options in numerous parts of CSLP. The contributions characterize pioneering efforts starting from CSLP ideas to applied sciences and purposes, with each one bankruptcy encapsulating a unmarried challenge and its ideas.

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In this example, [h] is an IPA diacritic indicating the aspirated feature. Note that in common linguistic notation a phoneme is specified within slashes (virgules, / / ) and a phone is specified by a symbol within square brackets ([ ]). 8 The Romanization for Taiwanese used in this chapter is Peh-oe-jl (POJ) ( S f r S ^ / f i i J r ? -C. 3. Transcription of Speech There are quite a few ways to transcribe speech even for the same language. They can be classified into two relative categories as follows: • • Narrow (phonetic) transcription Broad (phonemic) transcription Narrow or phonetic transcription is to specify the pronunciation with as much detail as possible so that the speech can be phonetically reproduced without any ambiguity.

This name remained and the standardization process continued after 1912, and until today in Taiwan. M or "common speech") in mainland China after 1949. Today, standard Mandarin, as an official language used in China, Taiwan, and Singapore, is the most commonly spoken language in the world due to both the world's largest population in China, and to the power of modern education and mass media. Although Mandarin is the superset of standard Mandarin, and is the larger dialect group, it has become common and (also in this chapter hereafter) that standard Mandarin is simply called Mandarin for short.

In Section 3, several distinctive characteristics of spoken Chinese are described. It can be shown that the major feature of spoken Chinese is the specific structure of tonal syllables that corresponds to the pronunciation of a character in written Chinese. The six major dialects/variants of spoken Chinese, in order of speaker population1 size, are given in the table below. Table 1. Major dialects/variants of spoken Chinese. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Name Mandarin Wu Cantonese Min Xiang Hakka Name in Chinese guanhua (Tttfj/llfiS) wii ( ^ i / ^ ) yue ( # / % ) min (HMfl) xiang (M) ke(jia) (§(HC)) Population Important member 800 million Standard Mandarin 90 million Shanghainese 70 million 50 million Taiwanese 35 million 35 million The term Guanhua (Tl'fff/'ifiS', "official speech") was used since the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) to refer the speech used in the courts.

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