By Peter Lawler
Locations the paintings of Johan Galtung within the context of earlier and present debates in diplomacy, political thought, and extra as a rule, within the social sciences. This entire and important account scrutinises Galtung's conceptual icons, resembling, optimistic peace and structural violence.
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Additional resources for A Question of Values: Johan Galtung's Peace Research
Praxis was tacked on as a sixth and final stage, and it was simply asserted that the politics of realizing future social orders could be deemed science because it entailed a search for consonance between a vision of a preferred world and the existing world. There was a more fundamental problem with Galtung's new science. The idealist's brief comments on the possible decline of Western civilizational hegemony, of which orthodox science was a component, provided a significant pointer to developments elsewhere in Galtung's work where the theme of occidental dominance and its unfortunate consequences was being developed.
The quasi-empirical qualities of "needs" are being called into play here: A patently normative program is being constructed with the deliberate intent of avoiding debilitating moral and ethical argument. The dreaded "traditional peace thinking" need not be embraced after all. Galtung was later to address the implicit universalizing assumptions of needs-talk by allowing for the possibility of culturally specific needs, a move that could only weaken the overall argument. In a culturally plural world it is all the more difficult to determine convincingly who is obliged to fulfill which needs of whom.
24. Huxley, "Foreword," in Lentz, Towards a Science of Peace, pp. vi-vii. 25. Lentz's five "articles of faith" were faith in progressing toward the harmonization of human purposes; in the utility of undiscovered facts; in the discoverability of facts through the use of human intelligence; in the creative evolution and redirection of scientific research; in the existence of and applicability of the motive of universal human betterment. See Lentz, Towards a Science of Peace, ch. 6. 26. Founded as part of the Institute of Social Research at the University of Oslo in 1959, it became a fully autonomous institute in 1966.