By Emperor of Rome Theodosius I; Emperor of Rome Theodosius I; Freeman, Charles
Examines the pivotal ways that Theodosius's decree mandating a Christian orthodoxy ended debates in regards to the nature of God, exploring the explanations why Theodosius's function was once made to seem as a consensual ruling through the Council of Constantinople.
summary: Examines the pivotal ways that Theodosius's decree mandating a Christian orthodoxy ended debates in regards to the nature of God, exploring the explanations why Theodosius's function used to be made to seem as a consensual ruling by means of the Council of Constantinople
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Additional info for A.D. 381 : heretics, pagans, and the dawn of the monotheistic state
The land route from the Black Sea to the Red Sea was 3,000 kilometres. In 376 Valens in Antioch was 500 kilometres from the Danube where the Goths were massing, and a message and its reply would have taken a month. The land routes were relatively secure; those across the Mediterranean less so as winds and currents varied. In the winter the weather was so unstable that shipping virtually came to a halt. As a result an emperor could never be sure when orders sent by sea might arrive, if at all. Studies of voyages between Rome and the wealthy province of Egypt show that they varied in length between 25 and 135 days.
The northern border, from the mouth of the Rhine to that of the Danube on the Black Sea, was 2,000 kilometres long. The land route from the Black Sea to the Red Sea was 3,000 kilometres. In 376 Valens in Antioch was 500 kilometres from the Danube where the Goths were massing, and a message and its reply would have taken a month. The land routes were relatively secure; those across the Mediterranean less so as winds and currents varied. In the winter the weather was so unstable that shipping virtually came to a halt.
In 375 there was a fresh challenge to Valens from the Persian Empire. The empire’s ‘king of kings’, Shapur, of the aggressive Sassanian dynasty, was threatening to take control of Armenia, a mountainous kingdom in eastern Anatolia (modern Turkey), which had traditionally been a buffer zone between the two empires. The Romans had themselves to blame for the confrontation as they had interfered in the kingdom’s affairs, to the extent of killing the Armenian king, Pap, and installing their own nominee on the throne.